Variable Spoke Motor
by Alfred Evert
Link to original website: www.evert/de

At previous chapter Gravitymotor with eccentric gear general solution for usage of gravity was worked out. First technical realisation of previous chapter applied principle of ´Rhönrad´, that ´one-tooth gear-rim´. Round element there rolls within round surface, so transmission of turning momentum is not optimum. Better transmission demands interlocking, e.g. by gear-wheel running inside of gear-rim (second technical application of previous chapter). If these parts are build large size, construction might become rather complicated.

Bessler probably build his wheel with much simpler constructional elements. So now further versions of technical realisation are to research. I don´t want to present here all ´mental wrong tracks´, however I will offer some rather complicated theoretic ´detours´ for reflecting problems.

Arm, Spokes, Rotor
For example, it´s not quite trivial to design gear-wheel rolling free within gear-rim - if both elements show same number of teeth. Result schematic is shown at picture EV GM 220, serving as basis for following ´transmission-gears´.

At A as starting point is shown rotor-arm (RT, blue), fix installed at shaft and turning around that system axis (SA). Outside at this rotor-arm (RT) spokes (SP, grey, here e.g. eight) are installed, turnably beard within spoke-bearing (SL, German Speichenlager) of rotor-arm. Outside at each spoke are installed bolts (SB), at which rotor weights.

At D, left side below at this picture, rotor (RO, red) schematic is drawn, at which outside effective mass (WM, German wirksame Masse, green) is firmly fixed. Rotor again shows central opening, so rotor never comes in contact with system shaft.

At inner border of rotor are eight triangle openings, which are called rotor-bearing (RL, German Rotorlager). Into these openings previous bolts (SB) of spokes (SP) are located. Openings are installed around rotor axis (RA) by that radius, rotor at position shown hangs only at bolt of downside spoke. Bolts of other spokes are located anywhere within their opening without bearing weight.

At this picture at B is drawn longitudinal view through system axis showing these elements. Rotor-arm (RT) here is drawn as disc, turning around system axis (SA). Outside at disc spokes (SP) are beard turnably by spoke-bearings (SL). One spoke here is represented by two rods symmetric to rotor-arm (RT). At outer ends of spokes previous bolts (SB) are installed. At most downside bolt now rotor (RO) hangs within its rotor-bearing (RL), while upper bolt is located at middle of opening of its rotor-bearing. Outside of rotor, effective mass (WM) is mounted.

At this picture at C an alternative with opposite arrangement is sketched. Rotor-arm (RT) here is build by two discs, between which simple spoke (SP) is beard turnable. Again at most downside bolt (SB) of spoke now hangs rotor (RO), which in principle is build by two discs. So spoke has space to move within rotor, however bolt comes into direct contact with rotor-bearing (RL) as soon this spoke is weighted.

At E this variation of rotor is sketched by cross-sectional view. Rotor is build by outer ring of effective mass and inner ring with its rotor-bearings (RL), both rings connected via rotor-spokes (RS). Again it´s marked, rotor hangs only by its downside rotor-bearing (RL) at bolt (SB), while all other bolts are positioned far outside and contribute no support.

This constructional principle allows rotor as an ´eight-teeth´ element to move within certain room and same time turning together with ´eight-teeth´ element rotor-arm around system shaft. Bearing of that function can be build by diverse techniques. These possibilities of movements in principle now are basis for following versions.

Turning, Lifting, Lowering
At previous chapter was detected as basic prerequisite, effective rotor masses must turn. Additional prerequisite is lifting and lowering axis of rotor, thus to accelerate and decelerate rotor in direction of gravity. At picture EV GM 221 now is shown principle technical possibility corresponding to these prerequisites, as spokes of different lengths are used.

At A for example spoke-bearings (SL) are installed at rotor-arm (RT) concentric to system axis (SA) by radius of e.g. 10 cm. Spokes are 12 to 15 cm long, so spoke-bolts (SB) show distance to system axis of minimum 22 and maximum 25 cm (grey ring marks this room for movements).

At B only inner ring of rotor (RO) is drawn with its rotor-bearings (RL), thus without its effective mass far outside. Rotor-bearings (RL) are arranged concentric to rotor axis (RA) at radius of 22 cm. Upside right is sketched, spokes (SP) must have sufficient room to move within rotor. Spoke bolts (SB) however must be guided that kind, bolt arrives at its rotor-bearing (RL) as soon as this spoke has to take weight, i.e. rotor temporary hangs at this spoke.

At C situation is shown where rotor hangs at both long spokes. Rotor axis (RA) is positioned below system axis (SA), rotor thus is at its lowest position. At D, rotor got lifted into its uppermost position. Rotor hangs at both shortest spokes. At this example, rotor axis is located at level of system axis.

So only spokes most downward are bearing weight of rotor. Other spoke bolts reach far outside of their rotor-bearings (and finally land there when taking weight). This picture also shows, spokes are not in radial direction to system axis all times, but swivel around spoke-bearing (and within area of rotor) while revolution of system.

Labile Position
As spokes swivel at spoke-bearings, rotor can swing back or ahead little bit in relation to rotor-arm. Usage of gravity forces demands, effective masses can fall down (in order to decelerate this motion at following phase). This falling is started at its best from most labile position.

Picture EV GM 222 shows situation analogue to previous picture, however now are drawn only seven spokes. Each pair of spokes show lengths of 15 and 14 and 13 cm, however only one spoke is 12 cm short.

At lowest position (here sketched at D) rotor hangs at most long spokes. At uppermost position (here sketched at C) rotor hangs only at that one shortest spoke and thus in most labile position, i.e. rotor easy can tip over, here e.g. left side down.

Fall and Brake
At picture EV GM 223 at A once more this situation is shown, however rotor-arm (RT) did turn by some 20 degrees (in comparison to previous picture at C). Rotor weights still at this short spoke 12, its centre of weight now is positioned left side of supporting point, so rotor now will tilt left side down.

In addition to normal turning speed around system axis, now rotor turns around fulcrum (DP), which is represented by bolt of spoke 12. Rotor axis swivels around that turning point left-downward (see dotted arrow at RA).

Rotor can fall relative far because next supporting point is bolt of next spoke 13, which is longer than current spoke 12. Decisive however is, effective mass at its much longer radius can fall much longer distance, so far left side kinetic energy increases (here only marked by dotted arrow at WM).

This tipping-over adds to normal turning motion, so rotor in total now turns faster. Rotor axis wanders within system ahead (in turning sense). Already tilting around previous fulcrum (DP) affects turning momentum as this spoke bolt is pressed to right side. At a whole, now rotor weights at rotor-arm left side of system axis, so also by pure static view un-balance resp. turning momentum exists.

That relative falling goes on (like sketched at B) via each longer spoke 13 and 14 until long spoke 15 (as sketched at C). Rotor now is running far ahead of rotor-arm (as far as possible within room to move).

This running-ahead is reduced when rotor comes to shorter spokes. This turning-lead might end when rotor weights e.g. at spoke 13 (like sketched at D) and next will hit onto short spoke 12 again, thus is lifted to uppermost position.

At this phase, previous falling becomes delayed - however movement of effective masses are not braked down correspondingly. Opposite, turning of rotor is intensified, as shown upside and at previous chapter in details. This delay and swinging of effective mass downside right of supporting point affects additional pressure at this spoke. Accelerated turning of rotor masses ´pulls´ spoke ahead in turning sense, resulting usable turning momentum - even rotor axis should be positioned right side of system axis (like marked at D).

Usable turning Momentum
Schematic drawing of picture EV GM 224 once more demonstrates effects of that movement´s process. At A starting position is marked. Rotor (RO) here is drawn only as rod with effective masses (WM) far outside from rotor axis (RA). Rotor weights (via previous spoke) at supporting point (AP, previous bolt) below rotor axis. From this labile position, tilting starts (see arrow at RA).

At B are marked ways of following movements. Supporting point becomes fulcrum (DP), wandering in space towards right side. Rotor axis swivels some towards left around this fulcrum, at much longer distances however effective masses (see dotted arrows), left side down and right side up.

At C is sketched how falling-downward goes on, as supporting point (AP) now is represented by next longer spoke. This spoke at first stops tilting movement (by force in direction of dotted arrow). This supporting force however can not affect direct at effective masses, but especially mass left side now turns faster around new supporting point.

At D now delay of falling is sketched, as next supporting point (AP) is following short spoke. Also here, supporting force affects into direction of rotor axis. In relation to effective masses however, that force can effect only by right angles at connecting line between both masses. This component of force is drawn here and its supporting point is marked by KK, left side of rotor axis. By pure static view, now gravity forces of right mass would work at longer lever arm.

Combination of gravity and kinetic energy of both masses however results quite different relations of forces, which here are marked once more. At right lever-arm of that ´seesaw´ weights only small downward directed force (because inertia force TK reduces gravity force GK of that mass). At left lever arm however affect both forces by likely vectors versus that blocking of its movement at point KK.

As described upside, left mass thus swings around new supporting point and right mass is slinged upward towards left correspondingly. At support-basis of that ´seesaw´ weight total counter-forces of all movement deviations (see double-arrow). This pressure affects downward right side und results turning momentum (DM, German Drehmoment) of system.

Swinging ahead and back
At picture EV GM 225 cross-sectional view is shown with rotor-arm (RT), spokes (SP) and now complete rotor (RO) inclusive its effective mass (WM). Previous situation is pointed out by thick drawn, short spoke, at which momentary rotor weights with its rotor-bearing (RL) left side down. Even rotor axis (RA) might be positioned right side of system axis, no ´static overweight´ right side results, but ´dynamic force-surplus´ left side.

Like already at EV GM 220 at E, rotor here exists of inner ring with rotor-bearings (RL) and outer ring of effective mass. Both rings are connected by some rotor-spokes (RS).

Solutions of previous chapter were ´round stuff´, as at Rhönrad round wheel did roll alongside round eccentric wall resp. gear-wheel did roll within gear-rim. Now here this solution works with spokes between rotor-arm and rotor and movement process is ´bumpy stuff´ as weight tumbles from one bolt to next bolt. So some damper should be installed at spokes. In addition would be advantageous, if these spokes (RS) between rotor rings would be elastic, so relative swinging ahead and back would be possible (like marked by dotted arrows).

Increased Turning Momentum
Most even running machines naturally are preferred at common technique applications. However, e.g. all piston machines show forces by separated strokes and even electric generators work not really steady. Previous solution works by strokes - and its performance increases essentially, if un-even turning is preferred.

At picture EV GM 227 previous gear is shown again. At A rotor (RO) hangs by its downside rotor-bearing (RL) at downside spoke (SP), which is marked by thick line. Via spoke-bearing (SL) thus rotor weights at vertical radius (R, thick blue line) at system axis (SA).

At B are shown consequences, if momentary now system shaft has to take higher load. Rotor goes on turning, while rotor-arm (RT) turns less. Previous straight line of forces between system axis and rotor supporting point now becomes bended. Rotor will pull rotor-arm ahead. Rotor axis is shifted to left side. Increased turning momentum comes up, corresponding to increased load at system shaft.

At this process, also following spoke builds an angle to radial direction. At next phase, this spoke has to take weight, like marked at C by thick lines. Now weight does not hit onto this new supporting point in radial direction to system axis, but forces affect stretching of that bended line (from SA via SL to RL). Rotor-arm (RT) thus is pulled ahead by most strong lever-arm effect.

Deceleration of falling movement of effective mass thus becomes more ´soft´ and also tilting movement of rotor axis is no longer blocked abruptly. As a result, this angled-line exists longer time (like sketched at D), until lastly stretched position comes up analogue to situation at A.

So strange enough, this system generates increased turning momentum if taking increased load, for certain time. If at following phase load is reduced, system falls back to starting situation. System-shaft and rotor-arm turn slower at high-load-phase and catch up delay at following low-load-phase.

Two different Legs
Next chapter will show, Bessler used just this effect of delayed turning movements. Offyreus, as strange Bessler called himself, probably was capable for even stranger ideas. Falling of masses resp. following delay results turning momentum in turning sense of system. Lifting of masses however puts load onto turning of rotor-arm. So lifting should be done force-neutral direct by system axis. Picture EV GM 228 shows possibility for this process.

At A is drawn ring-shaped rotor-arm at centre, which (opposite to previous rotor-arms) is not firmly fixed at system shaft, but can turn free around system axis. This element thus is called ´free-arm´ (FT, German Freier Träger, green).

At this ring turnable are installed four ´free spokes´ (FS), which like previous spokes interact via bolts with rotor-bearings of rotor. At position drawn, rotor hangs within downside free spoke.

Bearings of free spokes e.g. could be installed at radius of 4 cm around system axis, free spokes could be 19 cm long, rotor with its rotor-bearing thus could hang maximum of 23 cm downside of system axis. Each free spoke (FS) is a short spoke.

At B ´normal´ rotor-arm (RT) is drawn analogue to previous conceptions, i.e. this rotor-arm is firmly fixed at system shaft. However only four ´normal´ spokes (SP) are turnably installed at this rotor-arm (RT). Spoke-bearings (SB) are arranged concentric around system axis e.g. at radius of 10 cm, spokes are 14 cm long, so rotor with its rotor-bearing can hang maximum 24 cm downside of system axis. Each normal spoke (SP) is a long spoke.

At C these elements are combined. Momentary rotor weights at downside normal spoke (SP), i.e. rotor is at its lowest position. Shifted to normal spokes, free spokes (FS) interact with next rotor-bearing (RL). Thus rotor is lifted and allowed to fall down from spoke to spoke.

At further turning (at D) rotor weights at normal spoke (SP) and following free spoke (FS). Rotor practically stands at long and short leg same time. By this position, rotor-arms and rotor can go on turning. Normal spoke pulls rotor to right side, however does not lift rotor. As free-arm (FT) can turn free around system axis, free spoke (FS) at first will escape that load, lastly however centre of rotor-weight will come to position direct upside of supporting point of free spoke (FS).

This situation is shown at E, where rotor now is at high level. Depending on lengths of spokes, there can come up angle between radial direction (R) and spoke (SP). At F is shown, how next moment rotor tilts down to left side onto next spoke (SP). This falling motion is decelerated at the following with effects mentioned upside.

Like mentioned upside, Bessler possibly tested this variation - or at least it´s worth to be tested. When searching for simple solutions, this mechanism however seems to be rather complicated. Simple prerequisites for usage of gravity demand corresponding clear and simple mechanics.

Clear Solution
As first basic prerequisite for usage of gravity was defined, rotor has to turn. Rotor also must be allowed to run ahead system shaft resp. to tilt and fall within certain phases. These possibilities of movements are given by elements sketched at picture EV GM 229.

At A ´normal´ rotor-arm (RT) is shown, thus firmly fixed at system shaft and (at first) turning around system axis (SA). At its outer border again spoke-bearings (SL) are installed, within which spokes (SP) are beard turnably. At outer end of spokes again spoke-bolts (SB) are installed and at one (or two) downside spokes rotor weights. All spokes now show same lengths (opposite to previous solutions).

At B again is shown inner ring of rotor (RO) with its rotor-bearings (RL) for taking previous spoke bolts. Like mentioned upside, rotor must be build that kind, each spoke has room to move within rotor, however when a spoke takes weight, its bolt must land within rotor-bearing (RL).

At C both elements are combined and here rotor weights at downside spoke. As now all spokes are likely long, rotor is relative free to move (e.g. no longer limited by short spokes). Depending on affecting forces, rotor e.g. could also swing really far left side.

As second basic prerequisite for usage of gravity was defined, rotor-axis must be accelerated versus direction of gravity. This is done at the one hand, if rotor axis is lifted and at the other hand, if downward motion is delayed. At previous solutions, these both aspects were mixed as spokes of different lengths were used.

Opposite to all previous conceptions now here at C is drawn essential changed arrangement: rotor-arm (RT) may not turn concentric around system shaft, but rotor-arm must be installed eccentric to system axis (SA, thus to system shaft) around an eccentric axis (EA).

Rotor-arm (RT) well could be round disc, firmly fixed at system shaft out of its centre. This disc could also be mounted concentric to system shaft, however decisive is that spoke-bearings (SL) are arranged at a circle around eccentric axis (EA).

Finally by this arrangement, each prerequisite is represented by each separated constructional element:
- rotor represents effective masses, preferably at long lever arm and ring-shaped,
- spokes allow demanded room to move for rotor,
- rotor-arm results lifting and lowering by its eccentricity.

Clear Design
At picture EV GM 230 is drawn this design, left side by cross-sectional view and right side by longitudinal view through system axis. Within housing (GE, German Gehäuse) system shaft (SA) is mounted turnably. At system shaft eccentric is firmly fixed rotor-arm (RT). At rotor-arm, eccentric to system axis (SA) and concentric to eccentric axis (EA) are installed spoke-bearings (SL). All spokes (SP) are of same lengths.

Other end of spoke is beard movably within rotor-bearing (RL) of rotor (RO). Here spokes simply and schematic are drawn only as connecting lines between outer border of rotor-arm and inner border of rotor. Bearings and construction of spoke can be realized by different techniques. These connecting lines e.g. could be rods becoming shorter and longer like telescopes, however its maximum length is determined (e.g. when taking weight at downward position). As simple version, rotor bearing (RL) e.g. could be a slot within which spoke bolt (SB) can move linear.

Rotor here is drawn as disc, however could also exist of inner ring with rotor-bearings and outer ring with effective masses (WM), both rings connected by some rotor-spokes, like upside already mentioned at one version.

At longitudinal view this rotor-arm (RT) with its eccentric axis (EA) is positioned downside of system axis (SA), in most downside spoke (SP) rotor (RO) hangs in its lowest position. Right side at longitudinal view second assembly is arranged at system axis. Rotor-arm with its eccentric axis there is positioned upside of system axis. So this second module is shifted by 180 degrees to first module. The more modules are installed at system shaft, the more steady system will run and the more steady this gravity motor will show turning momentum.

Clear Process
At picture EV GM 231 central ´gear´ (without effective mass of rotor) is shown in four situations. At A is shown previous starting situation. Rotor-arm (RT) resp. its eccentric axis (EA) is positioned below system axis (SA). Rotor (RO) weights at downmost spoke (SP). Dotted circle is concentric to system axis, so momentary position of elements is to locate easier.

Some distances are marked, e.g. distance between three axis each are 2 units long, radius of rotor-arm (RT) 15 and inner radius of rotor 20, so spokes show (net-) lengths of minimum 3 and maximum 7.

At B system shaft did turn 90 degrees, i.e. eccenter axis now shows to right side, i.e. rotor is lifted at this phase. After further turning at C, eccentric axis is upside of system axis, i.e. rotor arrived at its uppermost position. Now rotor can fall down (at D) and downward movement of rotor axis gets decelerated (back to starting position at A).

Rotor here always is drawn hanging in its downmost spoke. However one can see well, rotor at every phase has room to move and thus can take positions corresponding to each affecting force. Indeed, rotor will run ahead turning of rotor-arm (and thus of system shaft) at some phases.

When rotor axis is lifted (previous situation B) rotor axis tilts below system axis. At phase of falling (previous situation D) rotor will swing far out towards left side. At phase of delay (back to previous situation A), left side of rotor will swing vehement downward-right. At this phase, effective masses ´pull´ at spokes in turning sense of system, and automatic will come up angle (analogue previous picture EV GM 227) between radius (SA - EA) and spoke (previous SL - RL).

So now it becomes clear, why upside was searched for ´eight-teeth gear-wheel´ running within ´eight-teeth gear-rim´. This conception now corresponds to solution of Rhönrad, however now here transmission of forces is done much more effective by spokes used. This conception corresponds also to gear-wheel and gear-rim, however here forces are transmitted not only by each one tooth (thus lastly radial) but by spokes in variable positions.

Smooth Swinging
Motions process is visualized by animation. Also at this conception, weight wanders from one spoke to next, visual by ´trembling´ of red marked rotor axis. At the other hand, also blue marked eccentric axis is trembling, even it´s turning steady around black marked system axis (because this animation is based at only 24 pictures).

It´s well to recognize, spokes take differing angles and show differing lengths. However these motions are much more harmonic than at previous solutions. Like mentioned upside, spokes are to construct by diverse techniques. For example, its length are variable if using telescope-rods or sledges within rotor-arm or within rotor could be used (or other techniques like discussed at following chapters). At any case however, spokes must be beard turnable at both ends - like this animation shows.

Here is only shown - already relative smooth - swinging of inner rotor ring. Effective masses at much longer lever arm (and even at rotor-spokes some elastic) will move more steady. Even acceleration and deceleration of masses are relative small, forced changes of tracks however will produce enormous inertia forces - and usable turning momentum.

Past and Future
This design now again is really pretty - thus for me true and effective solution. Admittedly, I could have discussed this concept already at start of this chapter and spare readers previous bizarre mental detours. I presented these diverse considerations, at the one hand because I had to suffer much longer strange ways and readers might like to participate little bit.

At the other hand and rather sure, Bessler had tested just these versions, like discussed at next chapter Mysteries. After this excursion into past, following chapters will come back to actual and future questions.

Evert / 04.04.2006