Administration
Cross - Wheel - Motor
by Alfred Evert
Link to original website: www.evert/de

Objectives
At earlier chapter Wheels at Tracks moved, among other things was explained, why wheel broken of lorry overtakes lorry by large jumbs. At previous chapter Ringwheel-Motor, this subject was discussed once more by picture EV RRM 03.

There occures well known effect of reduction of rotation for the benefit of increased movement ahead. Not common understanding probably is, accelerated translation will result correspondingly increased rotation by next hit onto road. This surplus of energy is logical result of contribution of road, which moves relative to wheel and brings counter-power into total system (which is not only wheel, but wheel plus road).

At previous ´Ringwheel´-chapter was noticed, system of ´flying wheel plus hilly road´ easy could be copied by mechanical model. Objectives of this chapter now are to precise this concept.

Rotation and Translation
At EV KRM 01, picture above is shown once more in order to point out essential effects. Wheel right side is rolling on plane surface, its axis (A) moves to left side, correspondingly turn all masses (B) around wheel´s axis (and all turning here is assumed counter clock-wise all times). However, directions and speeds of movements of all masses are most different.

If wheel no longer is guided by its axis and no longer is pressed onto surface, all mass parts can resist versus steady changes, thus free wheel behaves quite different. Mass part of most kinetic energy (upside) dictates movement of wheel as a whole, as this mass parts move correspondingly to its large inertia forces. This upside mass no longer is forced to decelerate and move downwards. Correspondingly behave all other mass parts.

Within this phase of free flying, wheel will reduce its rotation (C) around its own axis in benefit of correspondingly faster translation (D). By this movement ahead of higher speed (E) wheel again hits onto road. Its mass below, for short time, is forced to stand still on road, while all other mass parts ´stumple´ over this point. Wheel thus again will show more rotation (F), corresponding to meanwhile increased translation.

As wheel is rolling at plane surface, masses move at short radius around wheel´s axis. As wheel can fly free, masses prefere to move at much longer radius, like marked here by dotted arc of circle (G). Naturally, movements of rotation and of translation overlay all times.

This process is characterised by three criterias: previous varying radius (some analog to Double-Sling), acceleration resp. deceleration of movement ahead resp. rotation, counter-pressure of road with its input of addional energy into system as a whole.

If this process continously is to rebuild by mechanical model, this plane surface (H) theoretically is to bend into circle. In addition, a gear is to design with functions corresponding to previous criterias.

Crosswheel-Gear
At EV KRM 02 at A, at first is shown normal gear wheel. Around system axis (SA) is turning a gear wheel, here called system gear wheel (SZ, German Systemzahnrrad). Second gear wheel here is called rotor gear wheel (RZ, German Rotorzahnrad), turning around its rotor axis (RA). Both gear wheels are concentric and show same diameter, thus will turn same speed.

Main shaft (here system gear wheel) of any machine should turn steady. If nevertheless, rotor gear wheel shall turn un-steady, design of gear like marked at B would do. So non-concentric gear wheels are demanded, not exactly elliptic (like simplified drawn here), but some kind of ´oval´ shape.

Both wheels meet at supporting point, which is wandering while turnings. Turning speed of rotor gear wheel depends on relation of actual both radius. At position drawn here at B, e.g. rotor gear wheel would turn relative slow (cause this moment showing large radius towards supporting point). While one full turn of system gear wheel (SZ), rotor gear wheel (RZ) is accelerated and decelerated two times.

It´s well possible, e.g. while one full turn of system gear wheel, rotor gear wheel is accelerated / decelerated four times. Gear wheels thereto must show four ´hills and valleys´, like schematically marked at C. This kind of un-even gear wheel here is called ´crosswheel´. For comparison, concentric circles are drawn.

Differences of radius versus concentric circle here are over-drawn. Whole motor e.g. will show 250 to 500 mm diameters, so each gear wheel will show some 80 to 160 mm diameter. Differences versus concentric circle thus will be only some mm, by bare eyes merely to see. By actural technics, gear wheels like these are easy to calculate and to produce, e.g. also with unsymmetric slopes.

Movement´s Process
At EV KRM 03 system gear wheel (SZ) and rotor gear wheel (RZ) are shown by three positions. System gear wheel represents road above, bended to circle, some ´hilly´ tack with peaks and dales. Rotor gear wheel represents lorry-wheel above, rolling on that track resp. ´flying´ alongside. Rotor axis (RA) is guided around system axis (SA) at constant radius by a rotor arm (RT, German Rotorträger), here marked only by dotted grey arrow.

Supporting point at rotor right side is positioned near rotor axis, so this ´small´ wheel (that very moment) has to turn fast, thus shows high rotation (A) around its rotor axis. Rotor at middle of picture shows large radius versus system gear wheel, so rotor there will show slower rotation. Correspondingly faster its movement ahead (B) will be, thus rotor shows faster ´translation´ at circled track around system axis.

By this absolute speed increased, rotor left side hits onto next ´hill´ of system gear wheel. Rotor thus is forced to rotation (C), again turning faster around its rotor axis, faster than rotation at position A was.

This system is self-accelerating. Energy surplus is based on counter-pressure of system gear wheel, by which rotor is forced to reduce its movement ahead (at large radius around system axis) and to increase its rotation around rotor axis, thus at smaller radius.

On the other hand, by that hit, pressure is affected onto ´hill´ of system gear wheel (SZ), corresponding to thrust onto road mentioned above. If also system gear wheel (SZ) is in turning movement (slower than rotor arm (RT), so rotor still can roll alongside system gear wheel), this thrust-momentum is to brake-out of system as free available turning momentum (instead of steady self-acceleration above).

Energy contributed by system gear wheel (resp. energy surplus of total system) is as stronger as ´harder´ rotor will hit onto hill above. So as mentioned above it would make sense, this ´hit´-side of hill would rise sharply, following ´fly´-side of hill correspondingly flat would be. As this system is to drive by high turning speeds, differences only by part of mm are neccessary for effect wanted.

Construction
At EV KRM 04 is shown corresponding design as an example, upside by cross-sectional view and below at longitudinal cross-sectional view throuhg system axis. Large forces will affect onto gear, so gear here is doubled and between both, effective masses are arranged.

Evert Crosswheel-Motor Withing housing (GE, German Gehäuse) system shaft (SW, German Systemwelle) tournably is beared. Fix connected with system shaft (SW) are both system gear wheels (SZ). Each is in connection (by wandering supporting point above) with four rotor gear wheels (RZ). Rotor gear wheels (RZ) are guided by its rotor axis (RA) concentrically around system axis. This function is done by rotor arm (RT). This rotor arm is free turnable around system shaft (SW) or its hollow shaft also could reach outside of housing.

Between each two rotor gear wheels, effective mass (WM, German wirksame Masse) is installed fix. Advantegeously, effective masses should be in shape of hollow cylinder, cause central masses show only small amount of kinetic energy of rotation around its axis. Even central part of rotor axis could be leaved out. On the other hand, masses may not reach beyond gear wheel, so ´stumple´- effect above can come up completely.

As continuously exists energetic exchange between rotation and translation, rotor arm (RT) will turn unsteadily. In order to minimize inertia resistance versus changes of turning speeds, rotor arm (RT) should be build as light as possible.

Here crosswheels are drawn by contoures above, in largely over-drawn shape. In reality, much less differences to circled shape are demanded. Nevertheless it´s adantageous to build slopes asymmetrical, so rotor at short distance is forced into self-rotation, on the other hand there is longer distance for building out faster movements ahead.

Process Mode
System is started by driving up system shaft (SW). Same time, rotor arm (RT) is to drive up, at least at same turning speed (at its hollow shaft or by back-turning-lock etc.). By same turning speed of system shaft (SW) and rotor arm (RT), rotors will not rotate around their rotor axis.

If now system shaft (SW) is braked to slower turning speed, rotor arm (RT) will go on turning, based at inertia of masses of rotor arm (RT) and rotors as well. So now, rotor gear wheels (RZ) will come up rolling alongside system gear wheels (SZ). By effects described above, thus rotor arm (RT) will come up turning faster (however by variing speeds) and rotors will come up to faster rotation like translation movements, phasewise exchanged.

The stronger system is weighted (resp. the stronger system shaft (RW) is braked down), the stronger thrust onto system gear wheels (SZ) will be, the larger turning momentum at system shaft (SW) is free available (cause correspondingly faster rotors roll alongside, more frequently hit onto hills, producing correspondingly higher thrust).

If at the other hand, system shaft (SW) no longer is weighted with workload, system shaft (RT) and rotor arm (RT) will come back to same (average) turning speeds (system running free of workload). If by friction, system got too slow, brakeing down system shaft a little bit and only short time, speeds of effective masses (rotor arm (RT) and rotors as well) are turned up again. Only when both turning speeds, system shaft (SW) and rotor arm (RT) are same, system is to stop down.

Senseful Application
Transformation of rotation and translation is well kown. At football, tennis or table-tennis, this effect is used on and on. However, nobody is interested in effect of thrust versus lawn or court or table.

Motor cars exist since more than hundred years, and at earlier times, axis often broke and wheels got flying. Today, wheels mostly fly at insane ´sports´ of motor-racing (up to logical end of ´thrills´, killing men, reported by slow-motion at TV). Everyone is astonished, how fast wheels jump ahead - but obviously even these movement-cracks are not interested in ´strange´ energy-surplus-effect.

So shouldn´t times be ready for senseful usage of this effect, inclusive its thrust onto surface? Small box down at cellar or within car, at least energy problems could solve.

Evert / 31.10.2002